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The Agreement On Trade Related Aspects Of Intellectual Property Rights

In addition to the basic intellectual property standards established by the TRIPS Agreement, many nations have engaged in bilateral agreements to introduce a higher level of protection. This collection of standards, known as TRIPS+ or TRIPS-Plus, can take many forms. [20] The general objectives of these agreements are: what are the intellectual property rights? Intellectual property rights are the rights granted to men through the creations of their minds. TRIPS was negotiated in the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) from 1986 to 1994. Its inclusion was the culmination of an intensive lobbying program by the United States, supported by the European Union, Japan and other developed countries. Unilateral economic support campaigns under the Generalized System of Preferences and coercion under Section 301 of the Trade Act have played an important role in suppressing competing political positions favoured by developing countries such as Brazil, but also Thailand, India and the Caribbean Basin countries. The U.S. strategy to link trade policy to intellectual property standards can in turn be attributed to the entrepreneurial spirit of Pfizer`s management in the early 1980s, which mobilized companies in the United States and made the maximization of intellectual property privileges the top priority of U.S. trade policy (Braithwaite and Drahos, 2000, Chapter 7). Other intellectual property agreements covered by the TRIPS Agreement: the Paris Agreement, the Berne Agreement, the Rome Agreement and the Integrated Circuits Treaty. Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations (1986-1994) – agreement establishing the World Trade Organization (WTO) – more specifically the agreement on the trade aspects of intellectual property rights Unlike other agreements on intellectual property, TRIPS has an effective enforcement mechanism. States can be disciplined by the WTO dispute settlement mechanism. The Agreement on the Trade Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) entered into force in 1995 under the Agreement establishing the World Trade Organisation (WTO).

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